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Nicotine

Most people come into contact with the nicotine through snuff. Smoke inhalation of snuff is a very effective way to absorb nicotine, since specialized organs lungs in gas exchange with the blood, the surface gets wet tissue oxygen-or nicotine-direct contact with the contribution blood. The smoker absorbs up to 95% of the nicotine inhaled. That smoker's heart rate and blood pressure increase by minutes after the first inhalation, gives some idea of the speed with which the drug is distributed throughout the body. Also can be inhaled when nicotine comes into contact with smokers.



Dependence

Nicotine addiction produces a quite strong, resulting in people who quit smoking a strong level of anxiety. The urge to smoke precedes emotional distress, irritability, restlessness, depression and difficulty concentrating. Physically there is a decrease there is a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, and changes in the digestive and sleep disorders. Nicotine addiction can be overcome, recovering most of the effects.



Manufacturing

Nicotine is obtained from the dried leaves of the plant of snuff (Nicotiana tabacum). The leaves contain between 2 and 8% of nicotine, which can be taken as an oily liquid, colorless or yellowish. It has a pervasive and persistent unpleasant odor and flavor. Nicotine has been used as an insecticide, but given its risk, has been replaced by safer substances.

Risks

Nicotine acts on the nerves stimulated by acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Because these nerves are distributed throughout the body, including the brain and the autonomic nervous system, the effects of nicotine may be widespread and varied.

Nicotine stimulates the adrenal gland to produce adrenaline and noradrenaline, giving an increase in blood pressure and heart rate, and a contraction of the arteries. It also increases the concentration of fatty acids in the blood. These acids stimulate platelet aggression, initial phase of thrombus formation.

Nicotine not only produces direct cardiac involvement, but may cause other undesirable side effects. There is also no doubt that the nicotine in snuff smoke can cause angina attacks in patients with this disease. It is known that also affects the pancreas, nicotine reduces the amount of pancreatic secretion, and therefore, smokers tend to suffer more frequently than duodenal ulcer. Nicotine also increases the frequency of heartburn and indigestion, relaxes muscles called cardiac sphincter, which normally prevents food and stomach juices flow back into the esophagus.

During pregnancy the fetus may be affected, it has found traces of nicotine in the amniotic fluid of mothers who smoke, can produce congenital malformations of the heart. In animal studies, high doses of nicotine produce fetal changes. You can also indirectly affect the fetus by increasing release of oxytocin by the mother, uterine contractions occur, decreasing blood flow to the uterus to the placental bed.

Nicotine poisoning in its pure form is deadly and is easily absorbed by the skin producing a cardiac arrest within minutes. Less severe poisoning causes nausea, stomach pain, diarrhea, dizziness, mental confusion, impaired hearing and vision, syncope, seizures, and sweating. Chronic poisoning, which is in any smoker, local irritation of the respiratory tract and indigestion, as well as digestive disorders, blood vessel contraction, increased blood pressure.

 


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